Le Temps (The Times) in Geneva (Economy edition): TOYS 日內瓦《時代報》:中國製造的玩具

Le Temps (The Times) in Geneva (Economy edition): TOYS 日內瓦《時代報》:中國製造的玩具


Le Temps (The Times) in Geneva (Economy edition): TOYS

04-13-2002 By Frederic Koller from Beijing

(曾錚注:此文原載於日內瓦《時代報》,2002年4月13日星期六經濟版。Frederic Koller於北京報道。)

A former prisoner of the Chinese camps says she has manufactured Toy rabbits for Nestle during her detention.

一位前中國勞教所的被關押者說,她在被關押期間曾為雀巢公司制作過玩具兔。

After investigation, the Swiss multinational denies, but wants to guarantee that no use of forced labour is done by its subcontractors.

在經過調查之后,這家瑞士跨國公司否認了這一說法,但卻希望能夠保證它的轉包商不使用強制勞動。

Inquiry *調查

Blamed by a former Chinese captive, Nestle introduces a clause against forced labour.

雀巢公司在受到一位曾在中國被關押者的指責之后,引入了一條不得使用強制勞動的新規定。

Nestle has just introduced a new clause for its contracts in China. It can look trivial, but it reveals a problem that a number of foreign companies operating in this country are likely to face : the use of the forced labour by local intermediaries.

雀巢公司剛剛為它在中國的合同引入了一項新規定。這項規定看上去可能并不起眼,但卻揭示了許多在中國加工產品的外國公司很可能面對的一個問題:使用強制勞動的當地中間商。

From now on, explains Francois-Xavier Perroud, spokesman of the multinational in Vevey, "the contractor has obligation to obtain the formal agreement of Nestle before resorting to any unspecified subcontractor". The company wants to avoid being trapped by its Chinese partners. How did it come to this point ?

雀巢公司發言人Francois-Xavier Perroud解釋說,從現在起,「承包商必須得到雀巢公司的正式同意才能使用未經指定的轉包商。」顯然公司希望避免它的中國合伙人為它帶來任何麻煩。是什么使雀巢公司走到這一步的呢?

"Rehabilitation" programs * 「再教育」計划

Last December, a former prisoner of a labour camp (the well-known "laogai"(http://www.laogai.org/) ), now Australian refugee, explained in the columns of a Sydney''s newspaper how she spent part of her twelve months of detention in the south of Beijing stuffing toys rabbits intended, according to her, to Nestle.

2001年12月,一位目前在澳洲申請避難的前中國勞教所(即眾所周知的「勞改營」)的被關押者在悉尼一家報紙上敘述了她在北京南部的一個勞教所度過的12個月的生涯中,曾有一段時間填充玩具兔。据她稱這些玩具兔是雀巢公司的。

Jennifer Zeng, 35, is a follower of the Falun Gong sect, a movement being brutally repressed by the Chinese regime since 1999. She says she has been forced, like 130 other followers, to work seven days a week with less than four hours of sleep per night, for three ''maos'' (thirty cents) each rabbit.

35歲的簡尼弗曾(曾錚)是一位法輪功修煉者,該精神運動自1999年7月以來遭到中國政府的殘酷鎮壓。簡尼弗說她和其他130位法輪功學員在勞教所內曾被強迫一周工作七天,每天睡眠不到四小時,每一個玩具兔可為勞教所掙得3角人民幣。

This program of "rehabilitation" was accompanied by rounds of beatings and electric shocks. These rabbits, remembers Jennifer Zeng, were produced for Nestle with the clear knowledge of police officers in the camp, for whom that seemed but normal. She emphasizes however that the labour camp never received direct orders from foreign companies but only from theirs local subcontractors. In Australia, she also identified the rabbits on Nestle web pages.

這种「再教育」計划是伴隨著多次的毆打和電擊一起進行的。簡尼弗說勞教所的警察都十分清楚地知道這些玩具兔是為雀巢公司生產的,對他們來說這一點也不足為奇。不過簡尼弗強調說勞教所不是直接從外國公司,而是從轉包商那里拿到定單的。簡尼弗在澳洲也從雀巢公司的网站上認出了這种玩具兔。

She asks for an independent investigation so as to alert the world of these practices. Challenged, the multinational of Vevey admits having ordered 110, 000 toy rabbits last year to a toy company in Beijing, MiQi Toys Company, for a Nesquik [note: a hot chocolate drink] advertising campaign in China. Francois-Xavier Perroud explains that it is a joint-venture that exports its products in the whole world and adds : "this was duly controlled by our services ".

她要求對這一事件作獨立調查,以喚起世人對(強制勞動)這一現象的警醒。受到挑戰的雀巢公司承認去年向北京的米奇玩具公司定購了110,000個玩具兔,用于在中國促銷Nesquik所生產的熱巧克力飲料。Francois-Xavier Perroud解釋說,Nesquik是一家面向全世界出口的合資企業,然后補充說,「它是在我們的全權控制之下的。」

At the beginning of the year, Nestle asked for an investigation with a specialised external consultant, and recalled that "forced or involuntary labour carried out in prison is against the principles of the group ".

今年初雀巢公司從外面聘請了一位專職人員調查此事,并重申使用監獄中的強迫或不志愿勞動是違反該集團的原則的。

Two production factories *兩個生產厂家

According to the conclusions of this investigation, which was transmitted to us by Nestle, MiQi manufactured rabbits in two factories: one located at Qingdao, in Shandong province, and the second in Beijing - under direct control of MiQi. Nestle''s investigators report that the workshops of Qingdao have their own employees. As for Beijing, MiQi''s ensured Nestle that the stuffed rabbits "had been produced only by regular employees ". In addition, the Chinese Ministry of justice indicated to the Swiss company that "following an investigation carried out by the Office of rehabilitation by work of Beijing, no camp has ever produced toys for the Nestle company ". After this, Nestle China however introduced a new clause into its contracts.

根据雀巢公司轉交給我們的此項調查的結果,米奇公司有兩個生產厂家,一個在山東省的青島市,另一個在北京,并由米奇公司直接控制。報告說,青島的厂家有自己的雇員。至于北京的厂家,米奇向雀巢公司保證說填塞的玩具兔「只是由正式的工人生產的」。另外,中國的司法部門也告訴這家瑞士公司,“經過北京市勞動教養辦公室的調查,沒有任何勞教所為雀巢公司生產過玩具兔。”

盡管如此,雀巢中國公司在此之后還是在它的合同中引入了新的規定。

Beijing Mickey Toys Co. 北京咪奇公司大門標牌照片。(追查國際提供)

Beijing Mickey Toys Co. 北京咪奇公司大門標牌照片。(追查國際提供)

For Nestle, this should logically not go further. However, explanations of the Chinese official are hardly convincing. Jennifer Zeng is pleased by Nestle''s reaction, but doubts that the investigation was effective. She does not have any confidence in the Chinese Ministry of justice - we can understand from someone who has been jailed for one year without any legal procedure. Especially, she questions the version of MiQi: "It is an open secret that Chinese companies have a double accountancy, one for the supervisors and another for themselves."

對雀巢而言,從邏輯上講,這件事就應該到此為止了;但是,中國官員的解釋是難以讓人信服的。簡尼弗曾對雀巢公司的反應感到高興,但卻怀疑這种調查的有效性。她對中國的司法部門沒有任何信心──我們很能理解這一點,因為她沒有經過任何法律程序而被關押了一年。她對米奇公司的解釋尤表怀疑:「中國的公司有兩本帳已經是一個公開的秘密,兩本帳中一本用以應付上級,另一本才是給自己看的。」

Jennifer Zeng was jailed in the prison of Xin'' An, located at Tiantanghe, one of two principal labour camps of Beijing. This camp is next to the small city of Daxing, a few kilometers south of the Chinese capital. According to the former detainee, the toy factory must have been located close to the camp, because the woman who brought the toys to be stuffed drove a tricycle.

簡尼弗曾被關押在位于天堂河的新安勞教所,這是北京的兩個主要勞教所之一,离距北京南部几公里的大興縣城不遠。簡尼弗說這個玩具厂應該离勞教所不遠,因為送需要被填充的玩具兔的婦女是騎三輪車到勞教所送貨的。

Coincidence? *巧合?

The director of MiQi Toys refused to receive us and provide the address of its factory in Beijing. Daxing city was also not able to give us the address of toy factories in its jurisdiction. However, in the industrial district of Daxing, inhabitants clearly remember of a toy factory, producing toys and especially rabbits. It was called "Yinghe" and moved a few kilometers away at the end of last year to go to... Tiantanghe, the labour camp. We could not establish a link between this factory and MiQi. But Nestle confirms today that MiQi production factory is precisely in Daxing.

米奇公司的董事長拒絕接受我們的采訪,也拒絕提供它在北京的厂家的地址。大興城也不能提供屬于它管轄范圍內的玩具厂的地址。然而,大興城工業區的居民們清楚地記得一個生產玩具,尤其是生產兔子的玩具厂,這個厂名叫「銀河」,在去年底搬到了几公里以外的……天堂河,也就是勞教所所在地。我們無法建立這個厂和米奇之間的聯系,但是今天雀巢公司向我們證實,米奇玩具厂不偏不倚,正好位于大興城內。

Just a coincidence? For Jennifer Zeng, there is no doubt anymore : part of the 110, 000 Nesquik rabbits comes from her forced labour, for which she did not touch a cent when she was released.

這只是一個巧合嗎?對簡尼弗曾來說,這一切已是毫無疑義:這110,000只Nesquik的玩具兔部分出自于她的強迫勞動;而當她從勞教所被釋放時,卻分文未得。

Nesquik Toys made by Mickey 圖:咪奇公司為雀巢生產的玩具兔。(追查國際提供)

Nesquik Toys made by Mickey 圖:咪奇公司為雀巢生產的玩具兔。(追查國際提供)

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